MH- CET 2014 Analysis

MH- CET 2014 Analysis

After a gap of one year, MH-CET returned as the traditional last exam of the exam season. However, unlike earlier exams, there was a lot of anticipation in terms of the nature and difficulty level of the exam as it went online for the first time. The exam was conducted over a two-day period on 15 and 16 March in two slots per day. While the exam retained its distinctive flavour, there were some changes in terms of increased difficulty level of some question types, a couple of new types, change in approach required for online questions (in areas like Visual Reasoning etc). Also, the exam interface had some plus and minus points which will be discussed in greater detail later. MH- CET 2014 Analysis



MH- CET 2015 Analysis

MHCET, traditionally the last exam of the season was conducted over four slots in two days on 14th and 15th March 2015. Below is the entire CET 2015 Analysis
Though the exam went online last year, the test this year had many issues, both in terms of the quality and correctness of questions as well as the exam interface.



MH- CET 2010 Analysis


MH-CET 2010 had 200 questions without any distinct sections. The questions were from the following topics: Verbal Ability, Quantitative Ability, Logical Reasoning, Visual Reasoning, Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency.

The overall difficulty level of the paper was simple to moderate, but the difficulty lay in selecting the simpler questions first.


MH- CET 2009 Analysis

MH- CET 2009 was a lengthy as well as time consuming test. It was mostly on the same lines as previous year’s papers, but with a few new types of questions. The new question types increased the amount of time taken, and also reduced the confidence levels. But, for the well-prepared student, it was doable.
Below is the entire CET 2009 Analysis –


CET 2014 Analysis

Overall exam pattern:

CET was first conducted on online in 2014. It consisted of 5 sections which included Verbal ability, Logical reasoning, Quantitative Ability, Visual reasoning, Data interpretation. It consisted of 200 questions to be solved in 150 min. The difficulty level was easy to difficult.


Can the Indian Economy go Cashless

Achievers GDPI Workshop: Concept Builder

Topic: Can the Indian Economy go Cashless

Barriers to digital payment options

Acceptance Infrastructure
Point-of-Sale (POS) terminals penetration in India is amongst the lowest in the world. While that is a collective
grievance being addressed by ecosystem players and the RBI has planned a fund (Acceptance Development
Fund) to improve numbers, it’s a long term play.

Click here to download the PDF Version

Internet Availability
While India is the second biggest smartphone market in the world yet mobile internet usage is low hence
digital only payment solutions do not find a firm footing in the ecosystem despite consumer/merchant

Consumer Behavior
Consumers have known no other way to pay other than cash which is now. It’s trusted and is learned
behavior. The learning curve with digital methods is steep especially with low literacy levels and internet
access being a privilege which deters a switch over.

Government Backing and Policy Support
Immediate surcharge removal on all forms of payments by plastic on all government institutions including
airports, insurance providers, hospitals, restaurants, ticketing should be the first priority for the government
to incentivize use of non-cash methods

Financial Literacy
Lack of Knowledge about basics in how to use banking services, debit cards, security of PIN/Card, linking
mobile number with a bank account and how to use a card instead of cash, use of wallets on smartphones for

Enablers for the transformation

  • Good digital development ecosystem to develop smart technologies to facilitate this transformation in the future
  • Competitive Landscape in telecom and banking industry to push the spread of cheap internet
    connectivity to rural and remote areas and inclusion of more people in the financial systems
  • Government Iniaitives – Jan Dhan Yojana, Issuance of Payment Bank licenses, Launch of BHIM app, Direct Benefit transfer scheme, Adhaar Enrolment

Other Developing Country Examples
– Brazil – Banks in Brazil took deposit and withdrawal transactions into retail shops that exist in every
village and neighborhood.

Kenya – In Kenya, the mobile-phone operator Safaricom has developed a network of 30,000 stores through
which its customers can cash in and out of their M-PESA mobile wallet accounts. That’s 200 times the number
of branches operated by the largest bank in the country. 17 million Kenyans — about three-quarters of the
adult population — can send or receive money via cell phone


snap gdpi

SNAP GDPI Experiences

Taken the SNAP entrance exams?
The next step towards getting admission at your dream college is the Group Discussions Personal Interviews and extempore
Catking has compiled a number of resources to help you prepare for the upcoming GD-PI sessions the process of selection at SIBM consists of a Group Discussion on the basis of a picture shown, followed by another Group Discussion and then Personal Interview and extempore.
They include interview group discussions topics and experiences of the students to guide you more about the process.

Step One :- Audio Visual Group Discussion

Average Duration : 15 mins. (2 minutes for thinking and then 13 minutes for discussion).
No. of Panelists : 2
No. of Participants: 9
There will a picture shown on screen related to some current situation or sum social issues you have to carefully observe it and give your views accordingly

Some topics for reference:-
A photograph on child labor.
A picture having Albert Einstein on left side and Jesus Christ on the other side.
A picture containing Chandrayan missions advertisement, potholes on Indian roads, drought and flood In India.
A photograph related to global warming.

Step Two:- Group Discussion
Average Duration : 10 mins.
No. of Panelists : 2
No. of Participants : 8
GD will be same as previous one but dis time ull be given a topic to discuss between Ur fellow participants. topics of GD are mostly the currents happening in world or country the most hot news are given as topics to discuss.

Some topics for reference:-
UN has lost its relevance in a uni polar world.
Direct Cash Transfer is a good alternative for subsidies.
Manufacturing industries are being overpowered by IT industry.
Should we have single government in the entire world?
Black money .

Step three :- Personal Interview and extempore
snap gdpi
Average Duration : 15 mins
No. of Panelists : 2-3
This round are to judge your confidence , innovative thinking and test knowledge.Be well prepare about the college prospectus know your college well.
Some questions of PI :-
Do you know who founded Symbiosis?
Why MBA?
Introduce yourself?
Which fields are you interested in MBA?

Some experiences shared by students
Excerpts From Interview 1:
(A B.Tech. CSE student with downward trend in academics falling from 93% in 10th to 71% in Engineering and 99.13 in SNAP). Introduce yourself. Who is the Vice-Chancellor of your university? Whom did he replace? Do you know who founded Symbiosis? What is the meaning of Symbiosis? Why Symbiosis? What do you know about the recent policy of the government of India over poverty alleviation? What is NREGA? What is the amount of money the government has spent on it?
Extempore: A white board.

Excerpts From Interview 2:
(A 98.4 SNAP scorer with 10th -89%, 12th-86% and B.Tech. CSE -76.5% marks). Introduce yourself. Why MBA? What were your problems at Rotaract club? Whom will you choose leader among Narendra Modi, M.S.Dhoni, Mukesh Ambani? What are leadership qualities? Give an entrepreneur’s name that has all these leadership qualities? Are you a leader yourself? Give examples where you could depict leadership skills.
Extempore: FDI in retail.
Excerpts From Interview 3:
(A 99.59 SNAP scorer having 10th -95.4%, 12th- 84.2% and B. Tech. Mechanical -78.64% marks and draws inspiration for MBA from internship at Reliance Industries and likes painting). How many people are employed by Reliance? What do you paint and can you explain some of the styles and forms of painting? Why MBA? Won’t your engineering go waste after doing MBA? Which fields are you interested in MBA? What are your hobbies?
Extempore: Big states vs. small states.
Excerpts From Interview 4:
(A 98.728 SNAP scorer having 10th -94.8%, 12th- 88.8% and ECE B. Tech- 83.2% marks and a work experience of 18 months as a technology analyst). Introduce yourself. What kind of books you read? Why MBA? How was work culture in your previous organization? What is the role of HR. Tell us few Labor Laws? What was HR department called earlier? Why did you leave your organization?
Extempore: State divide is good or bad?


NMAT GDPI Experiance



  • Workers had quit the job after they had to do overtime and night shifts. HR department and Operations department want to get them back. Suggest the measures to deal with situation.


  • An Indian entrepreneur exports textile to US and US meltdown lead to losses for him. He and his family committed suicide, whom to blame?


  • A boy is dying. You want his kidney for your own son. The dying guy is willing to donate it for free, but his family is notilling to give it. You are an entrepreneur. How will you deal with this situation?


  • Come out with consensus on top 10 toughest jobs out of 20 difficult jobs given (Coal miner, Electrician etc.)


  • Excerpts From Interview 1: (A B.Tech. CSE pass out student with 10th -94%, 12th– 90% and graduation-83% and 18 months of work experience with a reputed Information Technology company). Introduce yourself. What was your job profile? How do you manage your work? (System Integrator) What did you learned at your work? What are your weaknesses and do you plan to overcome these? Who is the chairman of the planning commission of India? What is the capital of Uttar Pradesh?


  • Excerpts From Interview 2: (A B.Tech. CSE student with 205 NMAT score and having 10th -85%, 12th- 60.4% and B.Tech.- 72.4% , 6 years of work-experience with an NGO and interest in stock market). Why you started working with NGO? Why do you want to come back and do MBA? What is the difference between a share and a bond? How does a company price a bond? What would you give more importance to Job or Organization? Tell us in one line why are you coming back from the spiritual world to do MBA?


  • Excerpts From Interview 3: (A 98.6 NMAT percentiler from Kashmir with 10th -87.2%, 12th-81.5% and B.Tech. in Industrial engineering -67.1%). Introduce yourself. What are the modifications railways is planning to do? Do you think those modifications are enough? Name the company involved in chopper deal? What is the recent happening in that case? What is your job profile? Who are your clients? Why did you switch to IT after doing Industrial Engineering?
  • Excerpts From Interview 4: (A 211 NMAT scorer with 10th -94.5%, 12th-92.6% and B.Tech. in ECE – 9.42 CGPA). Why you want to get into Narsee Monjee? Why MBA? Why don’t you join research with such a good marks? When did you realize you wanted to do MBA? What did you do in college events? What did you learn from your college activities? What has been the biggest challenge you faced in your life so far?

GD-PI Experience shared by a student.He scored 213 and converted the call.

Post NMAT when you get a call you have to send a list of documents to NMIMS Mumbai within a deadline. (They also accept it by hand when you reach there for CD-PI).

So part 1->

They ask for a SOP.

It’s a standard SOP which should include why MBA why NMIMS and why you.

Make a story of your past experiences which have built you to this point where you feel NMIMS is the best option for you.

part 2->

Submission of documents.

part 3-> reach mumbai for CD-PI process.

part 4-> Dress well. Wear a blazer and a tie.

part 5-> CD – Case discussion process. The group is generally of 10 people and the topic is detailed. Not a 2-3 line topic but a case on which you need to discuss specified points.

Now this discussion mostly turns into an Arnab’s newshour debate. Everybody shouts.

You won’t get a chance to speak if you don’t cross others. But here is the catch. There are 2-3 panelists who will silently monitor you. Don’t shout or interrupt others if you are not getting a chance to speak. Try to get in 2-3 good points and that should see you through. Try to manage the chaos and allow the silent ones to speak. Don’t break the rules of a GD. That’s important.

part 6-> PI – Personal Interview – usually a panel of 3 interviewers

If you have work ex be thorough with it. Know what you do what you want to do post MBA. Be calm and confident because they will ask you tricky questions and stress you a bit. Make sure you know what kind of industry you want to enter after MBA @ NMIMS and check on the last year placement stats. If they ask you questions which seem harassing or derogatory, don’t lose your cool. They are testing your composure.

Know the current affairs to be on the safer side.

Other basic questions, Why MBA? Why NMIMS? Why Marketing? What is marketing all about?

part 7-> If you convert the call be ready with 8lacs, you’ll have to personally go and deposit the first year fees at their campus.

So the process is not tough. They assess your personality and your clarity.

Some points to Remember-

1) Only an excellent score in NMAT is not sufficient to convert.

2) Overconfident candidates, strong very high scores, have failed to convert in the past years.

3) There is 1 out of 2.2 conversion rate, so chances of converting are quite high (provided you do well in the CDPI process). as compared to other B Schools., with number of seats in Core are 540 and HRM are 60

4) There is a 30% reservation for girls in NMIMS.

5) There are 2 rounds : Case Discussion and Personal Interview. Separate CD and PI are held for both Core and HRM.

6) If you have a low score which is just near the cutoff, you would have to ace both the rounds to get through.

7) If you have a very high score, you have to make sure that you don’t mess up either of the 2 rounds.

All the Best-Catking Team.


All you need to know about Personal Interview – MICA

After you complete your GE round, you are called for your personal internship. In the room its you with the panel list. The process usually takes from 20 mins to an hour. But mostly depends on the panellist and the way you answer.

Things to remember while preparing for the interview-

1) Have a through of all the applications of your undergraduate stream and how can it be connected to MBA.

2) Are you fit for an MBA?

You need to relate your graduate stream and MBA .And explain why you are an perfect candidate for MBA especially at MICA.

3) Have an overview of all the cultures of India and learn about the different traditions and customs. It’s important to know details about the land you coming from.

4) You would asked about work experience (if you have any).

Like what did you learn and how has it helped you?

5) In the PI, you may be asked to justify the decisions you have made regarding your academics or your career.

6) Depending on your interest, the panellists may ask questions about the Marketing and Advertising Industry. So it helps to be abreast with the latest developments in these fields.

7) Be true to yourself-MICA values you for difference that you bring ,the ideas that you spin,and new outlooks with which you can see the world to reshape it. Be yourself is the final key to crack the entire admission process at MICA because in the end, it is your vision and the passion that will set you apart from the most.

The PI in MICA does not attempt to ‘grill’ the candidate. They try to ensure that you are the right fit for MICA.

Bring out the MICA Passion and gear up for the most unique Group Excercise and Interview process!

Half the battle is won with clearing the psychometric and getting good scores above 50

Now let’s win the war to make it to MICA.  Get mentored by MICANS and Experts

Rahul Singh

MICA Spot Offer 2009


Harvard ( SPNM )

Anisha Mukhija

MBA NMIMS 2013-15

Harvard ( PMNO )

Ex Marico and Ex Henkel

And MICA Spot Offer Holders from 2013/2014/2015 to make the cut 

Join now:


NMAT CD/PI – Tips (Session II)

Hey there guys!!! How we all doing today? We are back some more tips for you to crack CD/PI sessions at NMIMS.

TIP 3: During the CD, it is not important the number of times you speak, what matters is that you put forward notable points, examples, quotes etc.

TIP 4: When waiting for interview, recollect positive thoughts in mind, talk to other candidates but pay no heed to negative comments.

TIP 5: During the interview, be yourself, do not try to fool the jury, if you don’t know it then say it.

TIP 6: Introspect well before you go for any interview, some questions about your personality may be so random but important that you won’t even realise what hit you. At that time, only introspection about yourself helps.

TIP 7: For GK questions have your opinions about that event, do not just quote the facts, by asking such questions they want to understand how you view the world, how you process things.

I can go on and on… But I believe these were some key points you need to keep in mind.

Be confident!!

Keep a beautiful smile on your face, dress well, have faith in yourself and you will be the winner at the end of the day.

All the very best!!!


Process Overview:

At the onset of the calls being declared, you need to first register for the CDPI Process. Make sure you do that at the earliest to avoid any delays. The NMIMS Process has 3 major parts:

Part 1: Statement of Purpose (SOP): The SOP is a reflection of your best qualities, your journey and achievements till date with the emphasis on Why you wish to pursue an MBA and the Intent to join NMIMS. Make sure you are honest and portray the Best of Yourself in a well-structured essay.

Part 2: Case Discussion Unlike most B-School’s NMIMS has a different perspective by giving a case study for a discussion instead of a general or debatable topic. A case discussion is generally a 20-to-30 minute process whose larger objective is to select those candidates who have the ability to perform in a team. Apart from this, the kind of topic given also helps panelists to know various traits of a candidate’s personality. What matters in the discussion is your stand on the topic, your ability to analyse the given topic, your awareness about the topic, and the way you present the topic. The focus here is more on leadership and decision making, because in a CD you may or may not reach a consensus because the issues given to you are debatable. The end result of CD will not always be to reach a consensus but to assess your people’s skill.

Average Duration : 20 mins. (5 mins to think and 15 mins. to discuss).

No. of Panelists : 3

No. of Participants: 13

Sample Topics

A. Workers had quit the job after they had to do overtime and night shifts. HR department and Operations department want to get them back. Suggest the measures to deal with situation.

B. Come out with consensus on top 10 toughest jobs out of 20 difficult jobs given (Coal miner, Electrician etc.)

Part 3: Personal Interview Your academic skills were checked in the entrance test, your people’s skills were checked in GD, now comes the turn of gauging you on your own standards. The B-schools want to know how much you are aware of yourself and how much you relate your goals to your personal self. Students spend most of the time in going through course books whereas 90 per cent of the interview questions are based on you. What could be better than answering questions on yourself? But answering questions on yourself can catch you in a tight spot.

There can be some rules set when it comes to CD because there are certain expected etiquettes, but there can be no rules set for the interview because everyone has sui generis personality. The best way to tackle interview is to sit and know you in and out. Think why you want to pursue MBA. Think and make a list of your strengths and weaknesses.

Not only will it help you analyse your personality, will also help you prepare many other questions for the interview. The most commonly asked questions are:

Why do you want to do MBA?

What are your personal goals?

Where do you see yourself 10 years down the line?

What are your hobbies?

What are your strengths and weakness?

Tell us about yourself. 

NMAT CD/PI – Tips (Session I)

Hello my friends, as the days to take the NMAT exam are coming to a closure, the heartbeats of each one of you must be fast, awaiting the results, wondering whether you will receive a call or not. However, few of my readers would have scored exceptionally well to ensure them a CD PI call, however the journey is not over my friends. This article is for each and every one of you who aim to attend and crack the CD & PI rounds at NMIMS with sound preparation and full confidence.

Let’s start with some basic points:

TIP 1: During the Case Discussion read the case properly, I know everyone tells you that but trust me despite of knowing it, we fail to practice it. Keep in mind all the facts mentioned in the case, and then debate on the key points. (I even despite of knowing all this made a mistake of not paying close attention to the details, and soon realised my mistake during the discussion. Then at that time I acted as a moderator and brought the group’s focus on our aim of reaching a conclusion and succeeded pretty well).

TIP 2: Listen carefully to what others are saying, maintain eye contact with the group never the panellist, show the group you are interested in what they are talking. Now how does this helps you, firstly it leaves an impression on the invigilator that you are a patient listener, a fine quality in a manager, secondly you can use the points to counter or carry forward the discussion depending on the situation and thus build your argument effectively and efficiently.

Hope it was helpful!!

That’s all folks!!!!!

Stay tuned for more insights..

SP Jain Form Filling Tips

  1. Describe yourself as seen by different roles:

– Highlight your one strength through each of these (Facts which you could give eg if asked)

  1. Any Adversity faced:

– Any professional or personal life situation where you had a low time; but you made a comeback

Again disguising your Good Qualities in the form of “What made you come out of adversity”

– If you don’t have then make up one where you shouldered Responsibility for the family

  1. Formative Years

– Highlight your academic and extracurricular exposure or achievements in the college/graduation level

  1. Success that Transformed:

– One Biggest Achievement preferably Professional / Academic or a Position of Responsibility

  1. Team:- achieved a Goal:

– Describe success at the workplace in a team as a motivator, leader driving the team

– If already given examples of Workplace: Post about any Leadership Role in Academics like Placement Committee / College General secretary / Sports Captain or coach etc

  1. Ethical Dilemma:

-Remember SP Jain is high on ethics so always choose Ethical Side

Key Pointers:

— SP Jain appreciates social work a lot so highlight that in the form

— Achievements to be listed in following preference order

A Academics

B Co-Curricular

C Extra Curricular


All the Best !

Rahul – MBA SP Jain 2009 


How to crack GDand PI?


Hey friends!!! Now that you guys are done with major exams, we all are eagerly awaiting the results. In the mean while I would like to share with you guys some tips on how to prepare and crack GD/PI of some top rank institutes so that you all can prepare accordingly.

XLRI – Once you clear the written examination the candidates are asked to fill an application form which consists of questions seeking academic as well as behavioural details. Further, you are required to prepare a 2-minute video wherein you can unleash your creativity and add value to your existing application.

CAUTION – Please fill the behavioural related data carefully as during the interview the situations will be created which will check and access the synchronisation between your words on the form and your actual behaviour and answers during the interview.

Students are advised to have deep knowledge about the subjects, projects, current affairs as the questions will not only touch the surface but will test the depth of your knowledge. However, the focus of the interview is to judge you as a person and whether you will be a fit candidate for XLRI designed curriculum.

So, introspect and know yourself well, do not over or underestimate your capabilities, just show them the person you are and you will be fine, because it is not always necessary that you know everything but the zeal in you to learn and grow defines you and make you the person you are.


IIM’s – Be it A, B, C or any other branch of IIM tree the way to success is usually the same. Some tips to have a fun ride are:

  • Have very deep knowledge of the current affairs, they can ask you anything and everything about it. With the knowledge have an opinion, your view may not be in synch with the panellist but that is how you think and process and that is what matters. State facts to justify your point of view and engage them. They are not looking for people who think like them but people who can think clearly and stand on their own feet.
  • Be honest. They know when you are lying and then the whole mood of the interview changes. Even if you have a lamest hoppy like watching television share that rather than saying you like singing etc. But when you are mentioning your hoppy have good knowledge about it. They can even ask you the history of television so be prepared and well read.
  • If you have a work-ex have thorough knowledge about your company/companies, if fresher then about your department subjects.
  • Come across as a happy, friendly and confident person. Have a smile on your face when you greet them and talk with them during the interview. Engage them in conversation, that’s one sign the interview is going well.

Have faith in yourself and things will fall in place.





TISS –  As TISS is socially focused college so that is one aspect that they search in the candidate they are interviewing. Henceforth, the students must be socially aware about the city, state, their organisation where they have worked. Have something on your CV that shows you are socially active.


For candidates with work experience the questions revolve around your experience on the same.


The institute focuses on maintaining diversity among the students, hence candidates must ensure that their application has something that distinguishes them from the crowd.


Further in depth knowledge of the current affairs, more than knowledge they want to know your opinions on these issues, hence students are advised to read editorials to ensure they can share opinion on the various happenings along with facts to support their answers.


Be confidant, be honest about yourself and you will get through!!!


All the best!!!!


SIBM – The candidates who compete in SIBM are of extremely good quality hence one must be very well read and prepared to sail through successfully.


The first round which is written round access your ability to be imaginative and creative. How perspective you are, how you view things and how you feel about them. In the write ups candidates are advised to put forward a managerial point of view.


The second is GD or Case discussion, each person gets good amount of time to speak up, however male candidates must ensure that they never cross a girl during the discussion, the panel lay very high stress on this one point.


The next is interview, wherein before the interview you are showed a picture and you need to speak about it during the interview. The interviews are usually stress interview; hence friends Be prepared, do not panic, maintain your calm. The panel checks your knowledge on current affairs, static GK, history etc. The candidates are thus advised to be well read about the same, they not only scratch the surface but dive deep into these subjects. Thus, have clear understanding and viewpoints on the same.


During the entire process, be creative, innovative, show them how you are different from the crowd, what do you have that others don’t.


Be honest and have faith in yourself, everything will work out fine in the end.










SCHMRD – When compared with SIBM, the process for SCHMRD is a bot relaxed.


In the first round, students are asked to share a write up on a very generic topic, ranging from current affairs to social causes, second a picture or a video is shown to them and then they are asked to create a story. Here the students are advised to be creative and imaginative in their ideas.


Second round is a GD/Case discussion, the topics for which are generic, everyone is usually able to speak, however as the time is less so candidates must make sure they make entries at appropriate times and make good points. Never cross a girl during the GD, just like SIBM, SCHMRD panel also lays a lot of focus on this one aspect of male candidates.


Then comes the interview, the candidates are given a topic and are asked to share their views, they are even given a whiteboard and a pen if they wish to use it to make their viewpoint clear. The questions during the interview revolves around your work experience, role models, hygiene questions.

The interviews are not stress interview unlike SIBM, engage in a healthy discussion with the panel, put forward your view points with substantial data and you will sail through smoothly.

All the best!!!!!


India Suffers from Huge Gender Pay Gap

Recently released Global Wage Report 2016-17 released by the International Labor Organization (ILO) has found that India suffers from huge gender pay gap. It shows that India has among the worst levels of gender wage disparity (men earning more than women in similar jobs) with the gap exceeding 30%.

India’s position: In India, women formed 60% of the lowest paid wage labor, but only 15% of the highest wage-earners. It means that women are not only poorly represented in the top bracket of wage-earners but also gender pay gap at the bottom is also very wide in India. In other words, not only were women paid less, there were fewer women in highly paid occupations.

Regional wage disparity: The share of women among wage earners was among the lowest in South Asia. Compared to a global average of 40%, and an Asia-Pacific average of 38%, in South Asia (whose dominant economy is India), only 20% of wage earners were women. Reasons for wage gap: Women’s educational choices produced occupational segregation. Care work mostly undertaken by women is undervalued because it may be seen as a natural female attribute rather than a skill to be acquired. Thus, there is higher representation of women in sectors where their work is undervalued results in a gender pay gap.

Way Forward: Strong labour market institutions and policies such as collective bargaining and minimum wages will help to lower the pay gap. It is found that the gender pay gap is smallest (around 8%) in the group of countries where the collective bargaining rate is at least 80%, and widest in countries with weak collective bargaining and very low or no minimum wages.
Delving into the reasons for the wage gap: the report noted that typically, women’s educational choices produced occupational segregation. For instance, since the majority of those who studied nursing were women, “this profession is over-represented among women”. At the same time, care work is undervalued because it may be seen as a natural female attribute rather than a skill to be acquired. Thus, a higher representation of women in sectors where their work is undervalued results in a gender pay gap.

The ILO threw light on high income inequality. In India, the top one per cent earned 33 times what the bottom 10 per cent did. The top 10 per cent also earned 43 per cent of all wages. Since 2006, average wages rose by 60 per cent in India.