Group Discussion


DONALD TRUMP- Bright Future Of America

Donald Trump the 45th President of the United States of America was born on June 14, 1946 in Queens New York. He was a successful billionaire and a huge television personality before entering the politics. He is the supporter of the Republican Party. He was standing against Hillary Clinton for the final round of elections.

He has brought many new rules and regulations which have created a massive impact all over the world. He won the elections on November 8, 2016. Donald Trump is the first who has won without any military or government service. He is the oldest and wealthiest President.

Important dates and events related to Trump’s Presidency:

  • 23rd October 2016, He announced his plan of first hundred days of Presidency.
  • 8th November 2016, the day he became the President of United States of America.
  • 20th January 2017, the day he was inaugurated as the President of the United States.
  • 27th January an executive order signed by President Trump suspending admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen for 90 days because of security concerns about terrorism.
  • The next day there were protests and rallies against this decision.
  • On March 6, 2017, there was a revised order which excluded Iraq and Syria from the ban.
  • Pledged the following things to be completed in his 100 days of Presidency:
  1. To build walls on the U.S. southern border to limit illegal immigration with a view to provide job opportunities to the unemployed American citizens.
  2. To revise the trade agreements done with other nations and to check on the companies who send jobs overseas.
  3. Remove the gun-free zones.

Read about:Gold Monetisation Scheme- To Help Receive Better Returns


At the end, we can say that during these days of his Presidency there were a lot of decisions taken which affected the immigration, the foreign trade, the employment sector and the defense sector.


BREXIT- An Event That Created A Stir In The Global Economy

Brexit is a term used to describe the exit of Britain from the European Union. The European Union – often known as the EU – is an economic and political partnership involving 28 European countries. To decide whether they should be in the European union or not a referendum that is there were votes taken from all who were eligible to vote. This process took place on Thursday 23rd June 2016.

The result was in favor of leaving the European Union. The leave won by 51.9% to 48.1%. There were more than 30 million people voting and the turnout was 71.8%.

After the referendum was lost, Prime Minister David Cameron announced his resignation as the Prime Minister of UK. He was in favor of staying in the EU and he preferred best that the captain for this ship be different.

Later, the former secretary Theresa May was elected as the Prime Minister. It is said that even though she was in favor of staying but there was no enthusiasm from her side. She was later not in favor of staying in the EU after the referendum was over. She believes that is what the British people want.

It was predicted by David Cameron, his Chancellor George Osborne and other senior figures that there will be economic crisis if the UK goes in favor of leaving the EU. The crisis that were predicted are unemployment, fall in house prices.

After the results were out, some of the predictions were true. The recession in employment was seen (4.8%), House prices had become low (9.4%) and inflation rate had risen to 2.3% in February. Pound had come down and was 15% lower against the dollar and 10% against the euro. But there has been 1.8% growth in the economy thereby coming second to Germany 1.9%.


It was created for any country that would want or wished to exit EU. It was done as a part of the Treaty of Lisbon- an agreement which was signed by all the EU states after which it became a law in 2009. There was no formal mechanism for a country to leave the EU before this treaty.

When will the UK leave the EU?

To leave the EU, the UK must invoke Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty which will give the two sides, two years to agree the terms of the split. The Prime Minister Theresa May had started this process on 29th March which means that the UK is said to leave on 29th March 2019, if it is agreed by all the 28 EU members.

Read about:Gold Monetisation Scheme- To Help Receive Better Returns


To conclude, the Brexit had its own effects and consequences that brought various changes to the economy of the UK.



Gold Monetisation Scheme- To Help Receive Better Returns

What is Gold Monetisation?

Gold Monetisation Scheme is the scheme where a citizen can deposit their gold in return for interest or dividend.

Why is this scheme brought into action?

Normally, people keep their gold in the bank locker which turns out to be beneficial when they sell that gold to the present higher prices but along with that they also incur bank locker charges i.e. carrying cost, it is charged for the time the gold is kept in the banks locker. This scheme helps citizens to avoid such charges and earn interest on the gold deposited. The

The gold can be deposited in any physical form: jewelry, gold bars, coins. The gold deposited will earn interest on its weight and on the valuation of the metal. The gold that is returned is equal to its 995 fineness or in terms of Indian rupees. It depends on the choice made by the depositor. The option is given at the time of deposit.

Following are the terms involved for depositing:

The banks will accept gold deposits based on:

  • Short Term that goes on for 1-3 years’ Bank deposit and
  • Medium Term that goes on for 5-7 years’
  • Long term that goes on for 12-15 years’ Government Deposit Schemes.

Purity of Gold:

Checking the purity of gold is a very important task. To check the purity of gold is now made easier because of availability of Collection and Purity Testing Centres. The gold will be tested in front of the people and they are given the certificate regarding the same on purity and gold content. This is done once people have made sure to deposit the gold in one of the deposit schemes.


  • The monetisation scheme helps people receive interest on the gold kept in their locker, the gold can either be a broken jewelry or jewelry that is not worn by the individual can also gain interest.
  • Gold coins and bars earn interest along the appreciation of value.
  • It is secured by the bank
  • The gold can be redeemed in physical form or rupees thus giving the gold purchase an earning opportunity.
  • Earnings are not included in capital gains tax, wealth tax, and income tax. Capital gains tax will not be applied on the appreciation value or on the interest.


Resident Indians [Individuals, HUF, Trusts including Mutual Funds/Exchange Traded Funds registered under SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations and Companies] can make deposits under the scheme. The opening of gold deposit accounts will be subject to the same rules regarding customer identification as are applicable to any other deposit account.

What happens with Gold at the bank?

The designated banks may sell or lend the gold accepted under the short-term bank deposit to MMTC for minting India Gold Coins and to jewelers, or sell it to other designated banks participating in the scheme.

Read about:DIGITAL INDIA: Digitally Empowered Society


We can conclude that the Gold Monetisation Scheme is a useful scheme to get accurate returns on the gold deposited and help reducing unwanted charges. It also helps the citizens in increasing their savings on a long-term basis.

7 P’s of Marketing Mix

Marketing Mix 7 P’s(Process, People and Physical Evidence)

This article is a continuation of Basics of Marketing: 4 P’s
In addition to the 4 P’s in that article there are 3 are three P’s viz.:
• People
• Process
• Physical Evidence
People are related directly to the business. Research is an important element to find whether there are enough people in our Target Group that is in demand for certain types of products and services. The employees of the company are the ones who deliver the services to the customer so they are also significant to the company’s cause. This is what is called the “internal” competitive advantage. If your employees genuine. People also form the culture of the organization.
The process is mostly relevant to the service industry. India is a service economy and this P of marketing mix holds significance for us. They systems that are in place in an organization and the processes affect the execution of the service. The costs need to be minimum and the efficiency has to be maximum. Speed and cost are the two major metrics that are aligned with process. Minimize cost and maximize profits is the success mantra for the service industry.
Physical Evidence:
Almost all services include some physical elements even if the bulk of what the consumer is paying for is intangible. For example a hair salon would provide their client with a completed hairdo and an insurance company would give their customers some form of printed material. Even if the material is not physically printed they are still receiving a “physical product” by this definition. In the service industries, there should be physical evidence that the service was delivered. Additionally, physical evidence pertains also to how a business and it’s products are perceived in the marketplace.


Demonetization- For Dark Indian Future

Demonetization is a process where the current currency loses its status. The recent demonetization that took place India on 8th November 2016 was a change that brought drastic changes in all the sectors on a global level.

The launch of new 2000 and 500 rupee notes caused a real chaos in the minds of the public and in the business market. The idea behind this step was to remove black money once and for all, and to expose whoever had this black money hidden with them.

The situation that occurred in the company were extreme. Daily there would be a long queue of public depositing their old 1000 and 500 rupee notes in exchange of the new ones. There were problems when money was not available in the bank and people who have been standing in line for the whole have been disappointed.

Due to the change in situations, transactions which include the usage of 1000 and 500 rupee notes have been reduced. It has been more difficult in the case of 500 rupee notes as there were no immediate supply of the new ones.

These two notes take up 86% of the circulation currency and the decision to ban 500 and 1000 rupee notes had brought problems among the various sectors. The sectors which got effected were, Automobiles, FMCG, Hospitality/Travel, E-commerce, Luxury Market, Gold, Entertainment, Share Market and markets globally.

Automobiles faced losses up to 50-60%, the reason behind this was that there was no way that a transaction or a deal could take place. There was no money and there were restrictions on the money being withdrawn which made the situation complicated.

FMCG the most important sector faced huge losses. The FMCG companies started facing a fall in sales which was mostly from the rural areas. The Rural Market covers 40-45% of the revenue for all the FMCG or retail focused companies.

Hospitality and travelling had become difficult which lead to a decrease in the reservations of hotels, restaurants, travel bookings and various other hospitality services. Delhi saw a loss of 28%, Mumbai of 7% and Bengaluru of 2%.

The E-commerce, Gold, Luxury Market and Entertainment faced their own respective losses. E-commerce had very few users or buyers visiting their website which lead to few clicks. Whereas, the Gold and Luxury market had to face huge losses which went up to crores and crores of rupees. The entertainment business saw a drop of viewers, which went down to 55 viewers a week.

Also Read:Mission To Make India Clean-(Swachh Bharat Abhiyan)


The demonetization had a drastic effect. Its aim was to eradicate black money but in turn its lead to huge amount of losses to the global market through market being down, common people suffering due to no availability of money from the banks and losses faced by the various corporate sectors. Finding of black money and the people behind them were small and the damages done were large.


Mission To Make India Clean-(Swachh Bharat Abhiyan)


The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a mission launched by the Government of India under the guidance of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The objective of the mission is to have clean roads, cities and villages. In turn having a clean and hygienic India. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched on 2nd October 2014 by the Prime Minister.

Another objective is to build community toilets to eliminate the problem of open defecation. They have also taken the initiative of monitoring the latrine use.


It all started on 1st April 1999. Government of India modified the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and started the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which was on 1st April 2012 renamed as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) by then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

On 24th September 2014, after the Cabinet approval Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was modified as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Their aim is to reduce or remove open defecation by 2019, a national campaign, covering 4,041 statutory cities and towns.


The aim is to have Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2nd October 2019 i.e. on the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi. They are planning to build 12 million toilets under the cost of 1.96 lakh crore (US$30 billion).

On May 2015, Tata Consulting Services, Mahindra Group and Rotary International others have promised to construct 3,195 new toilets. On the same month, 71 public sector undertakings in India supported the construction of 86,781 new toilets.

Hundreds of thousands of Indian people are still employed as manual cleaners in emptying buckets and pit latrines.


We can conclude by saying that the mission has been able to perform positively. They have been successful in building 3,183,000 toilets. Karnataka led all States in construction of toilets under the program. Many toilets have been constructed under the program. On 27 October 2016, 56 districts in India were ODF.





Basics of Marketing: Marketing Mix- 4 P’s of Marketing

The Marketing mix is a set of four decisions which needs to be taken before launching any new product. Marketing is simplistically defined as ‘putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time.’ Though this sounds like an easy enough proposition, a lot of hard work needs to go into finding out what customers want, and identifying where they do their shopping. Then you need to figure out how to produce the item at a price that represents value to them, and get it all to come together at the critical time. But if you get just one element wrong, it can spell disaster. You could be left promoting a car with amazing fuel economy in a country where fuel is very cheap, or publishing a textbook after the start of the new school year, or selling an item at a price that’s too high or too low  to attract the people you’re targeting.

Understanding the Tool

The marketing mix and the 4Ps of marketing are often used as synonyms for one another. In fact, they are not necessarily the same thing. “Marketing mix” is a general phrase used to describe the different kinds of choices organizations have to make in the whole process of bringing a product or service to market. The 4Ps is one way – probably the best-known way – of defining the marketing mix, and was first expressed in 1960 by E. J. McCarthy.

The 4Ps are:

Product (or Service).




A good way to understand the 4Ps is by the questions that you need to ask to define your marketing mix. Here are some questions that will help you understand and define each of the four elements:


What does the customer want from the product Add to My Personal Learning Plan/service? What needs does it satisfy? What features does it have to meet these needs? Are there any features you’ve missed out? Are you including costly features that the customer won’t actually use? How and where will the customer use it? What does it look like? How will customers experience it? What size(s), color(s), and so on, should it be? What is it to be called? How is it branded? How is it differentiated versus your competitors? What is the most it can cost to provide and still be sold sufficiently profitably?


Where do buyers look for your product or service? If they look in a store, what kind? A specialist boutique or in a supermarket, or both? Or online? Or direct, via a catalogue? How can you access the right distribution channels? Do you need to use a sales force? Or attend trade fairs? Or make online submissions? Or send samples to catalogue companies? What do your competitors Add to My Personal Learning Plan do, and how can you learn from that and/or differentiate?


What is the value of the product or service to the buyer? Are there established price points Add to My Personal Learning Plan for products or services in this area? Is the customer price sensitive? Will a small decrease in price gain you extra market share? Or will a small increase be indiscernible, and so gain you extra profit margin? What discounts should be offered to trade customers, or to other specific segments Add to My Personal Learning Plan of your market? How will your price compare with your competitors?


Where and when can you get your marketing messages across to your target market? Will you reach your audience by advertising online, in the press, on TV, on radio, or on billboards? By using direct marketing mailshots? Through PR? On the Internet? When is the best time to promote? Is there seasonality in the market? Are there any wider environmental issues that suggest or dictate the timing of your market launch or subsequent promotions? How do your competitors do their promotions? And how does that influence your choice of promotional activity? The model can be used to help you decide how to take a new offer to market. It can also be used to test your existing marketing strategy Add to My Personal Learning Plan. Whether you are considering a new or existing offer, follow the steps below to help you to define and improve your marketing mix.

Start by identifying the product or service that you want to analyze. Try asking “why” and “what if” questions too, to challenge your offer. For example, ask why your target audience needs a particular feature. What if you drop your price by 5 percent? What if you offer more colors? Why sell through wholesalers rather than direct channels? What if you improve PR rather than rely on online advertising? Once you have a well-defined marketing mix, try “testing” the overall offer from the customer’s perspective, by asking customer focused questions:

Does it meet their needs? (product)

  1. Will they find it where they shop? (place)
  2. Will they consider that it’s priced favorably? (price)
  3. And will the marketing communications reach them? (promotion)

Keep on asking questions and making changes to your mix until you are satisfied that you have optimized your marketing mix, given the information and facts and figures you have available. Review your marketing mix regularly, as some elements will need to change as the product or service and its market grow, mature and adapt in an ever-changing competitive environment. Once you have a well-defined marketing mix, try “testing” the overall offer from the customer’s perspective, by asking customer focused questions:

Does it meet their needs? (product)

Will they find it where they shop? (place)

Will they consider that it’s priced favorably? (price)

And will the marketing communications reach them? (promotion)

What is The Suwalki Gap? Why it could be the flashpoint between Russia and Nato?

It’s one of the most tranquil corners of Europe. Quiet country roads lead through pristine and unsoiled towns, glide past lakes and wind their way around virginal forests bespeckled with oak and spruce.

But defence watchers say this thin strip of land, fully within the European Union, could be a flashpoint of future military action between Russia and the US.A strategic affairs analyst has even raised the prospect that an emboldened Russia, intent on pushing the Washington-led NATO military alliance away from its territory, could drop a nuclear bomb on the isolated sliver of land.

Known as the ‘Suwalki Gap’, this 80km patch of relatively flat, difficult to defend countryside, straddles Poland and Lithuania.It is the only land connection between the Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia — all of which are in the EU and NATO — and their European allies.

On either end of the Suwalki Gap is Putin. To the west the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, stuffed to the gills with nuclear missiles, and to the east Moscow’s close ally Belarus. It’s a nightmare pinch point for NATO and its Baltic partners.

This gap could be easily overcome. Russia has very powerful forces stationed in Kaliningrad and with troops from Belarus it could be quickly closed. In 2015, Lieutenant General Ben Hodges, the commanding general of the US Army in Europe speculated on a scenario where Moscow shut the Gap under the cover of a military exercise. “You get thousands of Russian troops on both ends of the Suwalki Gap, so there’s a potential for them to transition from an exercise to an operation — that’s our concern.” Indeed, the area has become one of the most militarised in Europe with Russia and the US heavily armed and cheek by jowl.

Emeritus professor of strategic studies at Australian National University, Paul Dibb, said the West’s military expansion onto Moscow’s doorstep has never sat well with Russia. “Putin viewed the disintegration of the former Soviet Union as the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of last century. My view is when Russia was on its knees [following the end of the Cold War] it was provocative to expand NATO’s borders into the former Soviet stratosphere,” he said.

“The distance between the nearest NATO airfield in Estonia to St Petersburg is the same distance from Canberra to Cooma and I can tell you if we had Indonesian jets in Cooma we’d be doing something about it.” However, the biggest reason holding Russia back might not be US or European troops stationed on its borders — but the Baltic people themselves.

While there are substantial numbers of ethnic Russians in the Baltics, there are far fewer than in parts of Ukraine. “Russia would be met at best with neutral hostility and at worst protracted armed [guerilla] conflict. The Soviets experienced this in the Baltics in the 40s and 50s and they don’t want it to happen again.” That’s not to say war couldn’t happen. If NATO moved offensive rather the defensive machinery into the Baltics, or blocked sea lanes or access to Kaliningrad, Putin’s troops could mass at the Gap, daring the west to cross.

But, Prof Muraviev fears most what isn’t planned for. The accidental escalation that could come with having opposing forces so close to one another. “There’s a mutual vulnerability there, Russians feel vulnerable to NATO forces, the Baltics feel vulnerable to massive Russia. When you have mutual distrust there is an ongoing risk of a military escalation.” NATO says it’s determined to keep the Suwalki Gap open. “We are committed to the sovereignty of Lithuania, the sovereignty of Poland and all the other countries, so we will do whatever it takes to re-establish that,” Lt Gen Hodges had said in an interview.

What’s Happening in UEFA Champions League?

Today, the Uefa Champion’s League semi-final draw took place at Uefa headquarters in Myon, Switzerland. For the fourth straight year, the bitter Madrid rivals have been drawn against each other. Both the teams were finalists in 2014 and 2016 and also faced one another in the 2015. The Madrid derby is a repeat of two of the last three finals, both won by Real in dramatic circumstances: they prevailed on penalties in 2016, while Atletico were moments away from winning the 2014 edition, before Real came back to claim the trophy in extra-time with the famous Sergio Ramos header in the 93rd minute. The Whites will play the first leg of the tie at home on the 2nd of May, and the return leg will take place at the Vicente Calderón on the 10th of the same month.
Read Madrid have made it to the semi-final at the cost of Bayern Munich in an aggregate victory of 6-3 with Cristiano Ronaldo scoring a hat-trick in the return leg when Real Madrid needed it the most. Ronaldo had gone on the biggest goal drought of his career in the Champions League before the tie with Bayern Munich where he scored five over the two legs. The second leg was marred with controversial refereeing but none of that matters to Real Madrid who made it to the semi-final for record 7th time in a row.
Atletico Madrid qualified for the semi-finals by overcoming Leicester (1-0 in the first leg and 1-1 in England), having previously seen off Bayer Leverkusen in the last-sixteen. In the group stages, they finished top of the pile, getting the better of Bayern Munich, PSV and Rostov. With 5 goals so far, Griezmann is their leading scorer in the competition.
In the other draw it would be Monaco vs. Juventus. Monaco and Juve have faced each other at this stage of the competition before, in 1998. Monaco won the first leg 3-2, with Thierry Henry scoring one of the goals for the French side, but Juve came back to win the second leg 4-1, thanks to an Alessandro del Piero hat-trick, thus securing their passage to the final 6-4 on aggregate. The first legs will be played on May 2/3, with the second scheduled for May 9/10.


SKILL INDIA- Campaign To Train The Unskilled

Skill India was established for the reason of training the unskilled workers and giving them a secured employment. It was also launched with the objective of improving the potential of Indian workers . This has been helpful to the poor and underprivileged because they get the benefit of employment.

Approved for another four years (2016-2020) to benefit 10 million youth.

Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government.

Key Components of the Scheme:

  • Short Term Training:

The Short-Term Training is expected to benefit candidates of Indian nationality who are either school/college dropouts or unemployed. Duration of the training varies per job role, ranging between 150 and 300 hours. Upon successful completion of their assessment, candidates shall be provided placement assistance by Training Partners (TPs). The entire training and assessment fees are paid by the Government.

  • Recognition of Prior Learning:

Individuals with prior learning experience or skills shall be assessed and certified under the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) component of the Scheme. RPL aims to align the competencies of the unregulated workforce of the country

  • Special Project:

 Special Projects are projects that require some deviation from the terms and conditions of Short Term Training under Skill India for any stakeholder.

  • Kaushal and Rozgar Mela:

Social and community mobilization is extremely critical for the success of Skill India. Active participation of the community ensures transparency and accountability, and helps in leveraging the cumulative knowledge of the community for better functioning.

  • Placement Guidelines:

They make sure that the knowledge and skill learned by the workforce is put in use by creating employment opportunities and demands in the market. Efforts are made to provide placement opportunities to candidates, trained and certified under the Scheme.


  • Monitoring Guidelines :

It is seen to it that ambitious standards of quality are maintained and Inspection Agencies shall use various methodologies, such as self-audit reporting, call validations, surprise visits, and monitoring through the Skills Development Management System (SDMS). These methodologies shall be enhanced with the engagement of latest technologies.


The scheme will be implemented through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).